Differentiating public administration from business administration, a closely related field, has become a popular method for defining the discipline. First, the goals of public administration are more closely related to those often cited as goals of the American founders and democratic people in general. That is, public employees work to improve equality, justice, security, efficiency, effectiveness, and, at times, for profit. These values help to both differentiate the field from business administration, primarily concerned with profit, and define the discipline. Second, public administration is a relatively new, multidisciplinary field. Woodrow Wilson's "The Study of Administration" is frequently cited as the seminal work. Dr. Wilson advocated a more "businesslike" operation of public officials' daily activities. Further, the future president identified a separation between politics and the administration of public operations which has also been a lasting theme.
The multidisciplinary nature of public administration is related to a third defining feature: administrative duties. Public administrators work in public agencies, at all levels of government, and perform a wide range of tasks. Public administrators collect and analyze data (statistics), monitor fiscal operations (budgets, accounts, and cash flow), organize large events and meetings, draft legislation, develop policy, and frequently execute legally mandated, government activities. Regarding this final facet, public administrators find themselves serving as parole officers, secretaries, note takers, paperwork processors, records keepers, notaries of the public, cashiers, and managers. Indeed, the discipline couples well with many vocational fields such as information technology, finance, law, and engineering. When it comes to the delivery and evaluation of public services, a public administrator is undoubtedly involved
MPA programs focus on public administration at the local, state/provincial, national/federal and supranational levels, as well as in the nonprofit sector. Through its history, the MPA degree has become more interdisciplinary by drawing from fields such as economics, sociology, anthropology, political science, and regional planning in order to equip MPA graduates with skills and knowledge covering a broad range of topics and disciplines relevant to the public sector. A core curriculum of a typical MPA program usually includes courses on microeconomics, public finance, research methods / statistics, policy process and policy analysis, ethics, public management, leadership, planning & GIS, and program evaluation/performance measurement. Depending on their interest, MPA students can focus their studies on a variety of public sector fields such as urban planning, transportation, health care (especially public health), economic development, urban management, community development, education, non-profits, information technology, environmental policy, etc.
MPA graduates currently serve in some important positions within the public sector, including UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon, General David Petraeus, President of Liberia Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, NYC Police Commissioner Raymond W. Kelly, and Governor of Kansas-Kathleen Sebelius
In recent years, there has been a gradual convergence between the MPA and the Master of Public Policy (MPP) degree. Today, the course offerings of most MPA and MPP programs overlap to some degree, but MPP programs tend to provide more focused training in policy analysis and policy design, while MPA programs usually still provide more focused coursework in program implementation and public management.
Some educational institutions are now offering MPA degrees via online instruction. There are also Executive MPA programs for professionals who have prior work and management experience.
Outside the U.S., the MPA degree increasingly includes a substantial element of management education sitting alongside public policy and public administration thereby bringing it closer to the MBA degree.
|از زیر کار شانه خالی کردن||social loafing||چرخش شغلی||job rotation|
|اثر فشار گروه||the asch effect||توسع شغلی||job enlargement|
|گروه فکری||group think||غنی سازی شغل||job enrichment|
|ضربه ناپذیری||invulnerability||هویت در کار||task identity|
|مخالف خوانی||devil's advocate||اقتضایی انگیزش||motivation contingency|
|نیاز به خودیابی||self actualization||آفتاب پرست||chameleon|
|درک پدیده ها||cognitive need||مراودات ضمنی||ulterior transactions|
|نیاز به زیبا شناسی||aesthetic need||نوازش||strokes|
|جانشین های رهبری||substitutes for leadership||تحلیل مراوده ای||transactional|